Minimally invasive approaches to extrapancreatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Surg Endosc. 2012 Aug 28;
Authors: Gumbs AA, Jarufe N, Gayet B
BACKGROUND: Due to the perceived difficulty in dissecting gallbladder cancers and extrapancreatic cholangiocarcinomas off of the portal structures and in performing complex biliary reconstructions, very few centers have used minimally invasive techniques to remove these tumors. Furthermore, due to the relative rarity of these tumors when compared to hepatocellular carcinoma, only a few reports have focused on short- and long-term results. METHODS: We performed a review by combining the experience of three international centers with expertise in complex minimally invasive hepatobiliary surgery. Patients were entered into a database prospectively. All patients with gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma were analyzed; patients with distal cholangiocarcinomas who underwent laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomies were excluded. Patients were divided according to if they had gallbladder cancer, hilar cholangiocarcinoma, or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for gallbladder cancer and 10 for preoperatively suspected gallbladder cancer, and 5 underwent laparoscopic completion procedures. An average of four lymph nodes (range = 1-11) were retrieved and all patients had an R0 resection. One patient (7 %) required conversion to an open procedure. No patients developed a biliary fistula, required percutaneous drainage, or had endoscopic stent placement. One patient had a recurrence at 3 months despite a negative final pathological margin, and a second patient had a distant recurrence at 20 months with a mean follow-up of 23 months. Nine patients underwent laparoscopic hepatectomy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. All anastomoses were completed laparoscopically. Biliary fistula was seen in two patients, one of which died after a transhepatic percutaneous biliary drain resulted in uncontrollable intra-abdominal hemorrhage despite reoperation. A third patient developed a pulmonary embolism. Thus, the morbidity and mortality rates were 33 and 11 %, respectively. One patient was converted to open and six patients (66 %) are alive with a median follow-up of 22 months. Five patients underwent minimally invasive resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma; of these, two also required laparoscopic major hepatectomy. The mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 240 mL (range = 0-400 mL) and the median length of stay (LOS) was 15 days (range = 11-21 days). All patients are alive with a median follow-up of 11 months (range = 3-18 months). None of the 29 patients developed port site recurrences. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive approaches to gallbladder cancer and intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma seem feasible and safe in the short term. Larger series with longer follow-up are needed to see if there are any long-term disadvantages or advantages to laparoscopic resection of extrapancreatic cholangiocarcinoma.
PMID: 22926892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]